By the end of 30-ies. Wehrmacht was completely mechanized and “bloated” from a variety of techniques, and the Soviet Union in the field of off-road vehicles – almost one experiment, the Americans – the old model, unsuitable for future large military trials.
The Soviet Army in WWII Willys model chosen and GAZ-67 as a four-wheel drive cars are – there was nothing else offered. What we had then had. And the People’s Commissariat of Defense, and the American military department woke up about the same time, when German troops began gradually “swallowed” one after the other European countries.
Cry of the US government to its auto makers on the need for a mobile vehicle was picked up in 1939-1940 GG three companies: about one year on the basis of a competitive American Bantam, Willys Overland and Ford developed the military cars. Simple, cheap, wide profile, no-frills – that’s what the car was waiting for the army. I waited and hurried.
By the standards of most customized Willys. Under the symbol “MB” series, he began to be issued from June 1941 year. Its main parameters are: wheelbase – 203 cm, length – 337 cm, weight – 1020 kg, maximum speed – 104 km / h, the ride height – 22 cm, tires – 6.00 × 16 with large lugs. The company is particularly proud of an elaborate engine: 4-cylinder, in-line, with a displacement of 2200 cm3, power – 60 hp at engine speed of 3600 rev / min.
Car Willys MB also had a powerful, albeit a light, frame and axle suspension on longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers, hydraulic brake drum, single-plate dry clutch, 3-speed with floor lever switching speeds, 2-stage Splitter, drive all 4 wheels. He had a canvas top, sliding down and fastens under a folding windshield. Openings in the wall, too, closed with a tarpaulin.
By a similar scheme was created Soviet rover. The first difference – in the initial terms. When, in January 1941, domestic designers have started to work, the first American “jeeps» Bantam already arrived in the Soviet Union. The right to the Soviet launch of all-terrain vehicle GAZ received development under the number “64”. The army entered the car to the end of 1941. Upgraded version of the GAZ-67, 1942nd, and in finished form – GAZ-67B with the 1944th, went to the front with the following characteristics: 4P engine working volume of 3280 cm3 capacity of 50 hp at 2800 rev / min; base – 2100 mm track -1460 mm ground clearance – 235 mm, curb weight – 1375 kg, speed – 90 km / h. Top and sides – foldable tarpaulin.
Compare the appearance of GAZ-67 and Willys MB still that heavy tarpaulin boots Soviet soldiers with comfortable shoes allies, and therefore vulgar vocabulary suitable for cars, “goats” and “goats”. Our culture and low manufacturing and assembly of obsolete units. However, fuel and oil, of any quality, “jeep” devoured Nemer. Brakes capricious, Make bad: but he was pulling, jumping, “butted”, chosen independently of impassable and inaccessible to other cars are the wilds of the war and thus did not fall to one side. Sorry, but this indicator our “goat” their “goat” certainly not a friend. “Goat” was a “foreigner” prominent, sleek, very choosy, delicate, demanding to him some attention. He could have a lot, but his fashion then the engine demanded gasoline with an octane rating of 68 or aviation KB-70 and “their” special liquid high-quality oil, but he could offer something that “jeep” – low-quality cracked gasoline and heavy oil of questionable “taste”, which made the life of the American motor sharply declined.
Low-quality oil is also shortened the life of a miniature transmission. Do not light open differed durability driveshafts. Because of the small ground clearance under the rear axle casing “Jeep” on the front plow sat down on the ground. Breaking the half-line, springs and lightweight frame. No sudden movements kept the levers of steering drafts. And finally, the notorious instability: even at medium speed, it tipped over. The American was unacceptable to the front-line route narrow gauge – 1230 mm versus 1460 mm gazovskih, thanks to which “sixty-seven” easy going for “trodden” truck trail.
The only dangerous force capable of permanently stopping “jeeps” and “GAZ cars” was a direct hit, a bullet in the tank, as well as mines. Americans have created their “fighter” at the rate of 3-month stay on its front, and “67th” GAZ cars that ran 45-mm and 76-mm cannon lived an average of 5 fights. So, our heroes – a one-day machines, this is due to their external austerity.
Strictly speaking, a comparison of these unique vehicles Second World War, it’s not quite true. Yes, and only after so many years since the victory they excite the minds of not only veterans, but also young people, and everyone is looking for the answer to the question: what was the best? The answer is simple: each responded to their design purpose. The war they became friends, even to intermarry (referred to as front-line soldiers “GAZ cars” – Ivan Willis) and adapted to all your needs.